PO Box 13402
Wellington, New Zealand

GE-Free New Zealand

in food and environment (RAGE Inc.)

Advanced Gene Editing Technologies, GMO 2.0

GMO 2.0: Gene Editing and Gene Drives


Chromothripsis as an on-target consequence of CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing. (2021) Nat Genet 53, 895–905 .  Leibowitz et al research findinggene editing causes fragmentation of the chromosome leading to tens to thousands of chromosomal rearrangements causing nucleus, micronucleus, and chromosome defects which initiate a mutational process, called Chromothripsis.

Differentiated impacts of human interventions on nature: Scaling the conversation on regulation of gene technologies (2021) Heinemann, J.A., Paull D.J.,  Walker S., and Kurenbach B. Elementa. Heinemann et al provide a rationale for, and bridge to, a consistent and comprehensive approach to gene technology regulation.

Genetically Modified Microbes:Technological and Legislative Challenges and National Security Implications (2021) IRT and Protect Nature Now. Report highlights the dangers of GE microbes and their impact on the environment, psychological and social effects. 

Genome-edited Camelina sativa with a unique fatty acid content and its potential impact on ecosystems (2021) Environ Sci Eur 33, 38. Dr Katharina Kawall research found that intended genome edits unintentionally alter the composition of a plant and/or interfere with its metabolism.

Anticipating and Identifying Collateral Damage in Genome Editing (2020), Burgio and Teboul critical appraisal of benefits and risks associated with genome technologies. 

Gene-Silencing Pesticides: Risks and Concerns (2020) RNAi Full Report Friends of the Earth (FOE). Dr. Sirinathsinghji, Klein, Dana Perls, M.C.P., have written a comprehensive and clear report on RNAi technologies and the risks they pose.

RNA-based pesticides aim to get around resistance problems (2020) Shaffer L article discusses the new ways RNAi pesticides will work after weeds and pests have become to resistant to the herbicides and pesticides used on GM crops 

Detection of CRISPR-mediated genome modifications through altered methylation patterns of CpG islands (2020) Farris et al. BMC Genomics 21:856.  Farris et al made the observation of epigenetic modification provides an indicator that intentionally directed genomic edits can lead to collateral, unintentional epigenomic changes post modification with generational persistence.

Assessing the risks of topically applied dsRNA-Based products to Non-Target Arthropods. (2020) Romeis J., and Winmer F, Front. Plant Sci. 11:679. Arthropods form an important part of the biodiversity in agricultural landscapes and contribute important ecosystem services.  The report studies the adverse environmental effects from the use of dsRNA  on valued non-target species, Arthropods.  

Broadening the GMO risk assessment in the EU for genome editing technologies in agriculture (2020) Kawall K, Cotter J, Then C discuss the problems with GE and the need for regulators to have the best detection and assessment tools for them.

A Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method Specific for Detection and Quantification of the First Commercialized Genome-Edited Plan. (2020) Chhalliyil, P., et al Foods, 9(9), p.1245. new development test for gene  edited GMO's. 

Genome Editing in Food and Farming — Risks and unexpected consequences, (2020) Dr. Janet Cotter (LE), Dana Perls (FOE), review assistance from Dr. Jonathan Latham (BRP). A report on genome editing and how it can create genetic errors, such as “off-target” and “on-target” effects, leading to unexpected and unpredictable outcomes in the resulting GMO.

Repair of double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR–Cas9 leads to large deletions and complex rearrangements (2019) Kosicki et al report significant on-target mutagenesis, such as large deletions and more complex genomic rearrangements at the targeted sites in mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse hematopoietic progenitors and a human differentiated cell line.

Search-and-replace genome editing without double-strand breaks or donor DNA. Anzalone, A.V., Randolph, P.B., Davis, J.R. et al. Nature(2019) dos:10.1038/s41586-019-1711-4.  Prime editing offers a better efficiency... and much lower off-target editing than Cas9 nuclease at known Cas9 off-target sites. (Abstract)

Genetically Engineered Animals: From Lab to Factory Farm (2019) Friends of the Earth report provides insight on health, environmental, ethical and consumer concerns raised by research on genetically engineered animals.

Transgenic Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Transfer Genes into a Natural Population (2019) Evans BR., et al Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 13047.  Report on new strain of fertile GE hybrid mosquito offspring sufficiently robust to be able to reproduce in nature. (criticisms lodged)

Genetically engineered hornless cattle: flaws in the genome overlooked. Test Biotech (2019) report on risks overlooked due to screening errors. 

GENE DRIVES A report on their science, applications, social aspects, ethics and regulations. (2019) We have linked you to the summary and full report of the European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER) into gene drive organisms (GDO) and the public and scientific issues that need to be addressed before any GDOs are released. 

Promises and perils of gene drives: Navigating the communication of complex, post-normal science. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences116(16), 7692-7697. Brossard, D., Bullock, P., Gould, F., & Wirz, C. (2019) discuss the roles of public opinion in public engagement with scientific processes on issues such as gene drives.

A large-scale whole-genome sequencing analysis reveals highly specific genome editing by both Cas9 and Cpf1 (Cas12a) nucleases in rice. (2018) Genome Biology 19:84. Tang et al results clearly show that most mutations in edited plants are created by the tissue culture process, which causes approximately 102 to 148 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and approximately 32 to 83 insertions/deletions (indwells) per plant.

Forcing The Farm: How Gene Drive Organisms Could Entrench Industrial Agriculture and Threaten Food Sovereignty ETC Group, October, 2018

A CRISPR–Cas9 gene drive targeting doubles causes complete population suppression in caged Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.  Nat. Biotechnol. (2018) Kyrou K, et al study found A CRISPR–Cas9 gene drive construct spread rapidly in caged mosquitoes, reaching 100% prevalence within 7–11 generations (population collapse)...We note that these proof-of-principle experiments cannot conclude that this drive is resistance proof.

Inter-homologue repair in fertilized human eggs?  (2018)  Nature: 560,E5–E7. Eli D., et al found that CRISPA/Cas9 has the potential to reduce disease-causing alleles, but inadvertent changes to the human germ line, including rearrangements, long deletions, and loss of heterozygosity,could have serious consequences that affect development, predisposition to cancer and fertility.

Repair of double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR–Cas9 leads to large deletions and complex rearrangements(2018). Nature Biotechnology. pp.1-7. Kosicki M.,  et al summarized '"¦ we show that DNA breaks introduced by single-guide RNA/Cas9 frequently resolved into deletions extending over many kilobases. Furthermore, lesions distal to the cut site and crossover events were identified. The observed genomic damage in mitotically active cells caused by CRISPR–Cas9 editing may have pathogenic consequences.

Evolution of Resistance Against CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Drive. (2017) Genetics 205(2):827–841. Unkless, Clark and Messer (2017) showed that resistance to standard CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive (CGD) approaches should evolve almost inevitably in most natural populations... The key factor determining the probability that resistance evolves is the overall rate at which resistance alleles arise at the population level by mutation or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ).

In silico identification of off-target pesticidal dsRNA binding in honey bees (Apis mellifera) (2017)  Mogren C., Lundgren J. research identified 101 insecticidal RNAs sharing high sequence similarity with genomic regions in honey bees that pose off target effects

Mechanisms and Consequences of Double-strand DNA Break Formation in Chromatin (2016) Cannan W.J and Pederson D.S. outline the mutagenic effects to the chromosomes from Double stranded breaks in DNA.

CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting β-globin and CCR5 genes have substantial off-target activity. (2013) Nucleic Acids Research, 41 (20), 9584-9592. Cradick, Fine, Antico & Bao, found that the repair of the on-and off-target cleavage resulted in a wide variety of insertions, deletions and point mutations