PO Box 13402
Wellington, New Zealand

GE-Free New Zealand

in food and environment (RAGE Inc.)

Articles & Journal publications

Biotechnology and Sustainability 

Rethinking the drivers of biotechnologies: a paradigm for holistic climate change solutions (2022) Heinemann J.A, & Hiscox T.C. research the goals needed for social and biological ecosystems management that reduce the vulnerability for adopting technologies that shift the problem rather than solve it. 

Human and Animal Pesticide studies -  (Glyphosate studies highlighted in red)


Glyphosate use and mosaic loss of chromosome Y among male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, (2023) Chang, V.C. et al. Environmental Health Perspectives, 131(12).  the Study found that a high lifetime glyphosate use could be associated with mLOY affecting a larger fraction of cells, suggesting glyphosate could confer genotoxic effects.  

Changes in the Phenotype of Intramural Inhibitory Neurons of the Porcine Descending Colon Resulting from Glyphosate Administration (2023) Bulc, M.; Całka, J.; Palus, K. Int. J.Mol.Sci.2023,24,16998.  Their study found that  that glyphosate has a toxic effect on enteric neurons by inhibiting neuroprotective substances.

Invited Perspective: Important New Evidence for Glyphosate Hazard Assessment,(2023) Schinasi L, De Roos A, Environmental Health Perspectives,10.1289/EHP14256, 131, 12, 


Glyphosate infiltrates the brain and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα: implications for neurodegenerative disorders (2022) Winstone et al results on the recent rise in glyphosate application to corn and soy crops and the positive correlation with increased death rates due to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.


Applied pesticide toxicity shifts toward plants and invertebrates, even in GM crops (2021) Schultz R., Bub S., Petschick L., Stehle S. and Wolfram J. Science 372, 81–84.  Schultz et al found the pesticide impacts of 381 pesticides over 25 years, the toxicity of applied insecticides to aquatic invertebrates and pollinators has increased considerably.

Use of Shotgun Metagenomics and Metabolomics to Evaluate the Impact of Glyphosate or Roundup MON 52276 on the Gut Microbiota and Serum Metabolome of Sprague-Dawley Rats (2021) Mesnage R et al  study highlights the power of multi-omics approaches to investigate the toxic effects of pesticides. Multi-omics revealed that glypho- sate and MON 52276 inhibited the shikimate pathway in the rat gut microbiome.

Herbicide Resistance: Another Hot Agronomic Trait for Plant Genome Editing (2021) Hussain,A.;Ding,X.; Alariqi, M.; Manghwar, H.; Hui, F.; Li, Y.; Cheng, J.; Wu, C.; Cao, J.; Jin, S. Plants, 10, 621. discussion on the possible advantages and limitations of genome editing for increasing herbicide resistance.


Residues of currently used pesticides in soils and earthworms: A silent threat? (2020) Pelosi et al research into contamination of insecticides, herbicides, and  fungicides in soils and earthworms at levels that could endanger these non-target beneficial soil organisms.

Stacked genetically modified herbicide resistance and insecticide rCry1Ac soybean...after glyphosate-based herbicide application, (2020) Zanatta C.B., Benevenuto R.F., Nodari R.O. and Agapito‐Tenfen S.Z. Observed unintended effects on energy and carbon metabolism affecting photosynthesis. 

Update on long‑term toxicity of agricultural GMOs tolerant to roundup. (2020) Gilles‑Eric Seralini, highlights the long-term in vivo effects of Roundup residues, which also present toxic and endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro, in treatment and control animals feed for research. Environ Sci Eur 32:18. 


Agrichemicals and antibiotics in combination increase antibiotic resistance evolution. (2018) PeerJ 6:e5801. Kurenbach B, et al  demonstrate that bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance in the environment at rates substantially faster than predicted from laboratory conditions.

Transfer of Cry1F from Bt maize to eggs of resistant Spodoptera frugiperda (2018). PLoS ONE 13(9): e0203791. Souza et al study found that  10-day old larvae of Cry1F toxin resistant Fall Army worm that fed on Cry1F Bt maize until pupation, then mated to produce eggs, transferred the Cry1F toxin to offspring.

Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina (2018) Journal of Environmental Protection, 2018, 9, 241-253.   Dr. Avila-Vazquez et al study confirms that the environmental exposure to glyphosate is associated with an increase in reproductive disorders (spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities) in a rural Argentinian village.

Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants. (2017)  Environ Sci Eur 29, 5. Schütte, G., Eckerstorfer, M., Rastelli, V. et al. :paper looks at the increasing bulid up of weed and insect pesticide resistance.


Herbicide ingredients change Samonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses (2017) Kurenbach B. et al. Microbiology Good paper on herbicides that affect the susceptability to antibiotics.  

Survey Report Improved Health After Avoiding Genetically Modified Foods.  (2017) International Journal of Human Nutritional and Functional Medicine.   Jeffrey Smith, Director of Institute for Responsible Technology.

Multiomics reveal non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats following chronic exposure to an ultra-low dose of Roundup herbicide.  (2017).  Sci. Rep.  7, 39328. >Mesnage et al. Results show Roundup herbicide cause liver disease with implications to human health.

GM crops and herbicides time to re assess risk assessment methods.  2017  Sci blogs.  Professor Heinemann's evaluation of the NK603 studies with reference to human health.  

2016 -2005

An integrated multi-omics analysis of the NK603 Roundup-tolerant GM maize reveals metabolism disturbances caused by the transformation process (2016)  Scientific Reports, 6, 37855. Studies show that molecular profiling of NK603 corn and its isogenic control are not substantially equivalent.

Assessment of the level of damage to the genetic material of children exposed to pesticides in the province of Córdoba. BERNARDI, Natalí­ et al . Arch. argent. pediatr.,     v. 113,   n.2, 2015 .   The study compares children living in Marcos Juárez (Córdoba) at different distances from pesticide-sprayed areas with children from the city of Rí­o Cuarto (Córdoba), who were considered not to be exposed to pesticides.

Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup tolerant genetically modified maize.  Gilles-Eric Seralini  et al (2014) Environmental Sciences Europe: 26:14. A two year feeding study on rats with genetically engineered round up (glyphosate based herbicide) ready maize had deleterious health outcomes, kidney and livier changes, immune system deterioration and tumours, on rats.

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet  (2013) Dr. Carman J  et al,   Journal of Organic Systems Vol.8 No.1. Findings of significance: Severe stomach inflamation and enlarged uterii in GM fed pigs.

GMO Judy Carman  Evidence of Harm in pig study  (2013)

Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases  (2013) Samsel and Seneff.   Excellent breakdown on the effects of Glyphosate on digestive and gut problems.   Similar findings can be linked to Carman et al study on pigs .

Hematotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis as Spore-crystal Strains Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or Cry2Aa in Swiss Albino Mice.  Mezzomo BP, Miranda-Vilela AL, Freire IdS, Barbosa LCP, Portilho FA, (2013) J Hematol Thromb Dis 1:104.

Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S:- the first 16 years (2012)  Dr. Charles Benbrook documents rise in Round up (glyphosate based herbicide) and insecticide use in US. 

What you should know about Dows 2,4-D GM maize,   African Centre for Biosafety, July 2012

Fate of Transgenic DNA from orally administered Bt MON810 Maize and effects on Immune response and growth in Pigs.  Walsh  et al, 31 day study on pigs fed MON810 maize, 2011.

Bt cotton in Andhra Pradesh - 3 year assessment (2002-2004) Results from the village based grass roots researchers  reporting on their  findings.

GM soy linked to health damage in pigs  - a Danish Dossier, GM Watch, 2012 - Pigs fed RRsoy (glyphosate based herbicide) 

GE Feeding Studies  biological effects of transgenic maize NK603xMon810 fed in long term reproduction studies in mice. '

Bt Brinjal  a detailed assessment by Dr. Jo Gallagher.

Survival of GE soy in the Gut. Soy Feeding study on humans found Tg survived digestion.

Mice feeding study on transgenic  Peas CSIRO (2005)

Reports on GM animal trials in New Zealand and overseas

Genetic Engineering of Livestock: The Opportunity Cost of Regulatory Delay (2022) Van Eenennaam A.L., Figueiredo Silva De F., Trott J.F and David Zilberman D. review GE livestock and the cost to produce, health difficulties that researchers and developers have encountered. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 2021. 9:453–78

Transgenic goats producing an improved version of cetuximab in milk (2020).  Dr. Liable G, AgResearch report on outcome of GM (ERBITUX) goats at Ruakura. 

Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae. (2016) Hixson SM, Shukla K, Campbell LG, Hallett RH, Smith SM, Packer L, et al.  PLoS ONE 11 (3): e0152264.  Hickson et al found that addition of EPA and DHA, equivalent to Genetically engineered Camelina oil levels, in cabbage white larval diets resulted in heavier butterflies with smaller wings and a higher frequency of wing deformities

GE Animals in New Zealand:the first fifteen years, 2000-2015. A detailed report written by Claire Bleakley, on the trials of GE animals bred to express human proteins in the milks referenced from their annual reports and Official information Act (IOA) requests..

Executive summary.

Genetically modified soybean in a goat diet: Influence on kid performance. Tudisco R., Calabrò S., Cutrignelli M.I., Moniello G., Grossi M., Mastellone V., P. Lombardi P., Pero M.E. & Infascelli F.,(2015 )Small Ruminant Res.126, Supplement 1, Pages 67–74.

Transgenic Cows That Produce Recombinant Human Lactoferrin in Milk Are Not Protected from Experimental Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection (2006)  American Society for Microbiology. 6206–6212 Vol. 74, No. 11. Hyvonen P., Suojala L., Orro T., Haaranen J. et al found that Lacto-Ferrin (Lf) is not an very efficient protein for genetic engineering to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy cows.

Improved Wool Production in Transgenic Sheep Expressing Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (1996) Damak S., Su H., Jay N., and Bullock D.W. research on 5 transgenic (Tg) lambs born out of 591 embryos engineered with the mouse ultra-high-sulphur keratin gene found expression of the transgene low and there was no significant difference in fibre diameter and hogget body weight from control siblings. Nature Biotechnology

Targeting Gene Expression to the Wool Follicle in Transgenic Sheep (1995)  Damak S., Jay N., Barrel GK and Bullock D. research in the keratin promoter for wool growth 

The germline manipulation of livestock: progress during the past five years (1990) New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Clark et al transgenic research on transgenic farm animals

Accumulation of PiZ antitrypsin causes liver damage in transgenic mice (1989) J Clinical Inv: 83(4):1183-90. Carlson J.A., et al . finding on transgenic mice engineered with the alpha anti trypsin gene showed AAT accumulation leading to liver damage.

International Reports 

GMO Regulatory and Legislative Outlook Report,  (2021)  Protect Nature Now reveals how genetic engineering technology has outpaced regulation, particularly concerning microbes. It also introduces practical steps to mitigate the substantial risk to our health and environment.

Gates To a Global Empire (2020) Detailed report on Seed, GMOs, Biopiracy, Bio diversity and Agriculture. Vandana Shiva et al Navdanya International.

Biotechnology for Forest Health? Test case of the genetically engineered American Chestnut (2019) Rachel Smolker, Biofuelwatch, and Anne Petermann, Global Justice Ecology Project.

Final Report of the Technical Expert Committee (TEC), (2012) Recommendations on the Regulation of GE, ratified by the Supreme court of India in June 2013.

A submission by BIO: Biotechnology Industry Organisations submission to the US trade negotiator at the TPP (2009)

GM Test Results

Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans. Bøhn T., Cuhra M., Traavik T., Sanden M., Fagan J. and Primicerio R. (2014) Food Chemistry, Volume 153, Pages 207–215  

University of the Free State South Africa, GM test results on Bokoma and Springbok maize and soya products.  

Reports on  Traditional Agriculture research.    

An Apple a Day: Which Bacteria Do We Eat With Organic and Conventional Apples?  Bacterial Micro biome diversity higher in Organic Apples. 

OANZ Market Report 2018 OANZ Organic Market Report on the growth, diversity and confidence of Organic production.

OANZ Market Report 2016.  OANZ Organic Market Report on the growth, diversity and confidence of Organic production.   

Rodale Institute Trial: 30 Years.  Long term study comparing Organic, conventinal and GE agricultural outcomes. Excellent

Olivier De Schutter  Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, 2010, UN General Assembly

Taptiklis N, 2008, Sweetening the deal – High sugar grasses in Reducing New Zealand's Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions

"Climate Smart" Agriculture,  The Hague Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate change, 2010.

Agriculture at a Crossroads: Synthesis Report. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, IAASTD,(Biotech: p.40-45, Trad: 71-79)

Biodiversity on Farmland Good management practices: A report on the enhancement of biodiversity on farmland. Heinz Watties Organic Farm in New Zealand research

Drought Tolerant Maize...  African research on non-GE ways to  farm with  saved seeds adapted to the environment.

Food Sovereignty Systems Feeding the world, regenerating ecosystems, Rebuilding local economies, cooling the planet, all at the same time. Alliance for Food Sovereignty 2011.

GE in Free Trade Deals TPPA

Sustainability Council NZ 2011, Right to Choose GM free food on the line with GM Free trade deal.

GE and NZ Councils

Hawkes Bay Consultation and submissions on Unitary Plan 2013: Dr. Kerry Grundy, Dr. Jack Heinemann, Bruce Wills and others.

Community Management of GMO's II

Draft Section 32 Report: Managing Risks Associated with Outdoor Use of Genetically Modified Organisms

Legal Opinions Managing Risks Associated with Outdoor Use of Genetically Modified Organisms Dr Royden Somerville QC

GE and DNA/RNA effects

The complex architecture and epigenomic impact of plant T-DNA insertions. (2019) PLoS Genet 15(1): e1007819. Jupe F, Rivkin AC, Michael TP, Zander M, Motley ST, Sandoval JP, et al. This study provides new insights into the structural impact of inserting foreign fragments into plant genomes and demonstrates the utility of state-of-the-art long-range sequencing technologies to rapidly identify unanticipated genomic changes.

Lack of adverse effects in sub chronic and chronic toxicity/ carcinogenicity studies on the glyphosate-resistant genetically modified maize NK603 in Wistar Han RCC rats (2019).  Steinberg P et al study found Mortality was significantly increased in male rats fed the 33% NK603 + Roundup diet when compared to the control group.  A significant increase in the number of deaths from pituitary neoplasia. Overall 28/50 male rats died in the NK603 + Roundup group from carcinomas, tumours pancreatitis, ulcerations and abscess.  This study incorrectly ignores the significance of these deaths and its own results

The GMO901 Project: Absence of Evidence for Biologically Meaningful Effects of Genetically Modified Maize-based Diets on Wistar Rats After 6-Months Feeding Comparative Trial. (2018) TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 0(0), 1–24. Coumoul X et al study shows statistical differences in bloods, liver and kidney function tests between the controls and both NK603 and MON.   Recording errors leading to very small samples of male rats clinical biochemistry for liver function (GGT, Totl BIL) were unable to rule out biologically meaningful effects.  These significant changes show that these short term studies should be conducted to see the long term effects. 

Professor Jack Heinemann, Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen and Dr. Judy Carman (2013) A comparative evaluation of the regulation of GM crops or products containing dsRNA and suggested improvements to risk assessments.


Professor Jack Heinemann's Expert Scientific Opinion 13/09/2012
Professor Judy Carman's Expert Scientific Opinion
Professor Michael Antoniou's Expert Scientific Appraisal of Heinemann and Carman's Work
Heinemann's Expert Scientific Opinion: Appendix 1
Heinemann's Expert Scientific Opinion:
Appendix 2

How GMO foods alter organ function and pose a very real health threat to humans, Mike Adams, Natural Health News 12/03/2012 (video)

GE in Society and Media

Wills P. R., Carter C.W. (2017) How life arose from primordial muck. New theory on RNA evolution. Life on Earth originated in an intimate partnership between the nucleic acids (genetic instructions for all organisms and small proteins called peptides.  

An Overview of Genetic Modification in New Zealand 1973-2013: The first forty years,   Project 2058, McGuinness Institute (Executive Summary, Full Report, Appendicies)

Kurian P., and Wright J. (2010) Science, governance, and public participation: An analysis of decision making on genetic modification in Aotearoa/New Zealand

Weaver K C. and Motion J., 2002, Sabotage and subterfuge: public relations, democracy and genetic engineering in New Zealand

New Zealand's 'Clean Green Image: Will GM plants damage it?

TVNZ guilty of breach of standards: Public misled over GE Moratorium

GE Seed patents

New GMOs : a deleterious link between regulation and patents (2023) Meshaka D. Inf'OGM, uncovers the seed industry pressure to exempt gene edited crops. This poses extreme dangers to farmers from contamination of seed with patented genes and the costs of transgressing patent rights. 

Seed Giants vs. US Farmers by The Centre of Food Safety and Save our Seeds. Excellent detailed report on the issues around plant patent rights, Monsanto's entrapment of farmers under GE patents.  

GE Crop performance

False Promises; The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (2020) contributors African Organisations. The report outlines the failure of input-intensive agriculture fails to significantly increase productivity, displaces traditional food crops with GE and hybrids, and fails or to raise incomes and, in turn, reduce poverty and food insecurity.

Sustainability and innovation in staple crop production in the US Midwest. Heinemann J., Massaro M., Coray D., Apapito-Tenfen S. & Wen J (2013) International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. Detailed report on the crops performance and yield.

GMO Myths and Truths Dr. Michael Antoniou, Claire Robinson, John Fagan. June 2012,   Open source, collaborative approaches to achieve a sustainable food system

High and Dry Report, Doug Gurian Sherman, Union of Concerned Scientists, June 2012

Hazardous Harvest Genetically Modified Crops in South Africa 2008 - 2012 African Centre for Bio Safety, May 2012,

HEAVY HANDS: Monsanto's control of South Africa, African Centre of Bio Safety, May 2011

Who benefits from GE crops?  The Friends of the Earth International  annual report, February 2011, analyses major new developments regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in various regions around the world.

Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, Findings from the UN-led International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, PAN 2010

Failure to Yeild, Evaluating the performance of genetically engineered crops, Union of Concerned Scientists,  2009

How much Bt toxin do GE MON 810 plants actually produce? Greenpeace (2007) good report on the levels of Bt toxin throughout the growing season

GE contamination Greenpeace

GE  Ecosystem impacts from soil microbes and pesticides

Genetically Engineered Soil Microbes: Risks and Concerns (2023).  Friends of the Earth (FOE) comprehensive report on the risks to human and environmental health from GE microbes from the projected development by Agribiotech companies, Syngenta,Cortiva, Bayer/Monsanto, BASF FMC)  between 2023-2030.

Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multiple Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize (2014) Gassmann A J.,   Petzold-Maxwell J L., Clifton E H. ,   Dunbar M W.,   Hoffmann A M., Ingber D A. and Keweshan R S.   PNAS. 1317179111v1-201317179. Bt crops producing lower dose toxin against target pests may select for resistance rapidly; consequently, current approaches for managing Bt resistance should be reexamined.

Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of field grown GM pine trees  

Wind pollination over mesoscale distances: an investigation with Scots pine (2011) Robledo-Arnuncio J.J. New Phytologist 190: 222–233doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03588.x Excellent study on weather conditions and pine pollen drift.

Long-Distance Pine Pollen Still Germinates After Meso-Scale Dispersal Williams C. (2010) American Journal of Botany 97(5): 1–10. Dr. Williams research detected pine pollen had germination rates of 2 to 57% after dispersal at distances from 3 to 41 km from plantation sites.

Ecological Impacts of Bt cotton  (2004) Vadakatto G. and Watson S., CSIRO. A Good Australian study research.